By William G.I. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas
This re-creation has been generally revised and up-to-date because the third version released in 1994. It comprises an excellent higher intensity of business details, focussing on how copper steel is extracted from ore and scrap, and the way this extraction can be made extra effective. sleek excessive depth smelting methods are awarded intimately, particularly flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. substantial awareness is paid to the regulate of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. fresh advancements in electrorefining, quite chrome steel cathode know-how are tested. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated including their effect upon optimizing mineral source usage. The booklet demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is a crucial resource of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality controls can also be mentioned and the booklet comprises a major part on extraction economics. each one bankruptcy is via a precis of recommendations formerly defined and provides recommended extra interpreting and references.
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Extra info for Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, 4th edition
3_. . . 3. World production of copper in 1999, kilotonnes of contained copper (USGS, 2002a). Smelting and refining include primary (concentrate) and secondary (scrap) smelting and refining. Electrowon production accounted for about 20% of total mine production. ,,. =. 4. Principal primary smelters of the world. The numbers correspond to those in Fig. 2. The type of smelting furnace is: F: Outokumpu flash furnace; T: Teniente furnace; N: Noranda Furnace; M: Mitsubishi system; IF: Inco flash furnace; IS: Isasmelt furnace; R: reverberatory furnace; S; shaft furnace; E: electric furnace; V: Vanyukov furnace; K: Kivcet furnace.
6 and plotted in Fig. 4. Chile dominates. 2 lists copper's main minerals. These minerals occur at low concentrations in ores, the remainder being 'waste' minerals such as andesite and granite. It is now rare to find a large copper deposit averaging more than 1 or 2% Cu. 5% Cu (average) are being mined from open pits while ores down to 1% (average) are being t a k e n from underground mines. 2. Principal commercial copper minerals. Chalcopyrite is by far the biggest copper source. Sulfide minerals are treated by the Fig.
The simplest mass flow control scheme is to use hydrocyclone sump pulp level to adjust ore feed rate to the grinding plant. If, for example, pulp level sensor (L) detects that the pulp level is rising (due to tougher ore and more hydrocyclone recycle), it automatically slows the plant's input ore feed conveyor. This decreases flow rates throughout the plant and stabilizes ball mill loading and sump level. g. flotation. 2. Sensing and control devices for grinding circuit shown in Fig. 6. Sensing instruments Symbol Fig.