An introduction to radiation protection by Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison

By Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison

An advent to Radiation safeguard is an obtainable account of the character of the risks offered through ionizing radiation and the tools of safeguard, for these new to the sector and for the non-specialist.
This e-book takes the reader throughout the basic history to the topic, the technical rules underlying the keep watch over of radiation risks, the organic results of radiation, and radiation detection and dimension. those are through a attention of extra really good subject matters together with radiation security in medication and within the nuclear strength undefined, radioactive waste administration and radiological emergencies

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1 INTRODUCTION The interaction of ionizing radiation with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive substances, leads to biological effects which may later show up as clinical symptoms. The nature and severity of these symptoms and the time at which they appear depend on the amount of radiation absorbed and the rate at which it is received. In addition to the effects on the person receiving the dose, damage to the germ cells in the reproductive organs – the gonads – can result in hereditary effects which arise in later generations.

For example, in the monazite sand regions of India and Brazil the annual whole-body doses from local ␥ radiation can be as much as 120 mSv/year. 7 MAN-MADE SOURCES OF RADIATION The early experiences of man-made sources of radiation involved X-rays and various uses of radium. As early as 1896 a letter appeared in Nature describing the effects of repeated exposure of the hands to X-rays and during the next 15 years many more cases were reported. These cases arose both from experiments with X-ray sets and also from their use in various treatments.

However, the low doses received in normal operations may cause harmful effects in the long term and these are discussed below. It will have been noted that in this discussion, early effects have been considered in terms of the absorbed dose, expressed in gray (Gy), rather than as equivalent dose in sievert (Sv). This is really a question of definition; the radiation weighting factor, wR, discussed in the previous chapter, and hence the concept of equivalent dose, is intended to apply only to exposures within the normal recommended limits (see Chapter 6) and should not be applied to doses at levels which could lead to early effects.

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