An Introduction to Natural Language Processing Through by Clive Matthews

By Clive Matthews

Introduces the topic throughout the dialogue & improvement of assorted machine courses which illustrate a number of the simple suggestions & recommendations within the box. The programming language used is Prolog. Paper.

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T h e result will be as follows. NP Det N V Det N the knight challenged the king As before, the Det and N branches may be combined into an N P tree, which, in turn, may be combined with the V branch to form a VP-tree as licensed by the rule VP -» V NP. T h e result is n o w a t w o tree 'forest'. Det the knight challenged Finally, these t w o trees may be combined into an S-tree given the rule S -> NP VP, so completing the parse. Det the knight challenged the king Because of the direction that the phrase structure tree is ' g r o w n ' during the process, the parsing strategy just outlined is referred to The Process of Language Understanding 25 as a b o t t o m - u p approach.

Spoken_in(Spanish, spain). no The n o refers to this goal not being a consequence of the p r o g r a m . In other words, Prolog assumes that anything it has not been told about does not hold. This is sometimes referred to as the c l o s e d world assumption. 7 Assuming the program e x a m p l e . p l , why do each of the following goals fail? - s p o k e n i n ( e n g l i s h , u k ) . - s p o k e n _ i n ( p e r u , S p a n i s h ) . - s p e a k s ( b o r i s , r u s s i a n ) . 3 C o m p o u n d Q u e s t i o n s It is possible to ask questions containing multiple goals.

Spoken_in(french, Canada). spoken_in(french, belgium). spoken_in(german, germany). spoken_in(german, a u s t r i a ) . speaks(john, english). speaks(jacques, french). speaks(helmut, german). Suppose, further, that information about w h i c h speakers can be understood in which countries needs t o be added. T h e only w a y this can be achieved at present is by adding a series of n e w facts t o the p r o g r a m . u n d e r s t o o d _ i n ( J o h n , uk) . understood_in(john, usa). understood_in(john, australia).

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