An Introduction to Metallurgical Laboratory Techniques by P. G. Ormandy, K. Guy

By P. G. Ormandy, K. Guy

Pergamon sequence of Monographs in Laboratory ideas, quantity three: An creation to Metallurgical Laboratory thoughts covers greater tools and methods in metallurgy in relation to the sensible elements of laboratory paintings, by way of experimentation, perform and adventure. The ebook discusses metallography, hot temperature, warmth remedy, and trying out of fabrics. The textual content additionally describes vacuum concepts, powder metallurgy, and becoming a member of of metals. actual metallurgists and scholars taking similar classes will locate the e-book useful.

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By using light which falls obliquely on the surface of the FIG. 17. Dark field illumination. Light strikes the grain boundaries and is reflected back through the objective lens. The grain boundary appears light, the remainder of the specimen appears dark. specimen (at a much greater angle of obliquity t h a n is the case for oblique illumination), only irregularities are able to reflect light u p the objective lens (see Fig. 17). Hence, in general, grains appear dark and grain boundaries light.

When the specimen has been properly positioned, the image should be projected onto the focusing screen and refocused when making the final selection of microstructure to be p h o t o graphed. Critical focusing is essential. If necessary, a focusing magnifier must be used to ensure this. The microscope must be free from vibrations, since they are obviously detrimental when producing a photomicrograph. If the correct exposure time has been established, a photographic reproduction of the specimen microstructure may be obtained.

Using this figure, a wire of the correct gauge with the correct resistance per foot length may be ascertained from the manufacturer's resistance tables. As the resistance of the wire varies with temperature it is important to check that the wire has correct current-carrying capacity. Resistance increases as the temperature rises and decreases as the temperature falls. Should the gauge of wire selected be too small, this may cause rapid oxidation and failure of wire through overheating. Hence, furnaces which use a wire to the maximum rating possible may have to be heated slowly on a low current during the initial stages of warming up.

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