By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: advent to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened strength and Chemical Equilibrium suggestions response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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Where there is a change in state in one of the products or reactants, the heat of transformation Lt must be taken into account—subtracted from the total if a react ant transforms, added if a product transforms. KirchhofFs equation must then be applied separately above the transformation temperature, including the value for the heat capacity of the substance in its new physical state, so that in general ACPtl. dT±Lt + j ACP,„ . I and ACp,n are the values of ACP below and above the transformation temperature respectively.
COG, Cp, CO-28-41+4-10X 10- 3 7-0·46χ 105 T~2 (298-1373°K). Heats of Transformation of Zinc: Lf,Zn =7280 J/mol at 693°K. Le,Zn = 114,200 J/mol at 1180°K. dT, where ACP is the difference between the heat capacity of the products and the heat capacity of the reactants at constant pressure. Where there is a change in state in one of the products or reactants, the heat of transformation Lt must be taken into account—subtracted from the total if a react ant transforms, added if a product transforms.
This arbitrary zero of heat content of substances has no fundamental physical meaning, but as thermochemistry is concerned with changes in heat content accompanying reactions, there is no obstacle to the adoption of this convention. On this basis, the heat of formation of a compound as defined above is the heat content ofthat compound at 25°C. In the above example, the heat contents of the lead and the sulphur are considered to be zero, and the heat content of the lead sulphide is — 94-lkJ. Δ// 2 9 8 =-94·1 - ( 0 + 0 ) .