An atlas of human blastocysts by Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic

By Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic

For those who had a in charge technique for picking out the healthiest and so much achievable conceptus from a cohort of growing to be preembryos, changing greater than a unmarried one with a purpose to in achieving strong being pregnant charges will be moot. someday within the not-so-distant destiny, this can be a truth. Taking a step in the direction of that destiny, An Atlas of Human Blastocysts vividly illustrates the common and extraordinary morphology of mammalian blastocysts. The atlas demonstrates that prolonged tradition of blastocysts is now available within the laboratory and issues us towards the day whilst will probably be attainable to select from a couple of fit hatched blastocysts.

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The zygote, and the oocyte from which it was derived, have a relatively low oxygen consumption21–23, and depend on low levels of Metabolic requirements during preimplantation development 39 oxidation of pyruvate and/or lactate20,24. The zygote cannot use glucose as the sole energy source25. In contrast, the blastocyst exhibits a large capacity to utilize glucose both oxidatively26 and through aerobic glycolysis27 (aerobic glycolysis is here defined as the conversion of glucose to lactate even in the presence of adequate levels of oxygen for oxidative metabolism).

The potential for preimplantation diagnosis by non-invasive methods. In Edwards RG, ed. Preconception and Preimplantation Diagnosis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993:299 83. Ray PF, Conaghan J, Winston RM, Handyside AH. Increased number of cells and metabolic activity in male human preimplantation embryos following in vitro fertilization. J Reprod Fertil 1995; 104:165–71 84. Ng E, Claman P, Leveille MC, et al. Sex ratio of babies is unchanged after transfer of fastversus slow-cleaving embryos.

The oocyte, and hence the zygote, exhibit relatively low levels of biosynthesis prior to embryonic genome activation and expression. As a direct result of this there is a high adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio within the embryo, which in turn will allosterically inhibit the flux of glucose through the glycolytic pathway19,29,30. 3 Concentration of carbohydrates in the human oviduct and uterus. 15 *Lactate measured as the biologically active L-isoform through the action of the basolateral ATPases33,34, there will be an increasing demand for energy (ATP).

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