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Have used separation logic to reason about memory safety and absence of memory leaks in low-level code . They perform abstract interpretation using rewrite rules that are tailored for “multi-word lists”, a ﬁxed predicate expressed in separation logic. Our approach is more general since we provide a family of reachability predicates, which the programmer can compose arbitrarily for writing richer speciﬁcations (possibly involving quantiﬁers); the rewriting involved in the generation and validation of veriﬁcation conditions is taken care of automatically by Havoc.
To this end, we introduce in this paper a new reachability predicate suitable for verifying low-level programs written in C. We describe how to automatically compute the precise update for the new predicate and a method for reasoning about it using automated ﬁrst-order theorem provers. We have designed a speciﬁcation language that uses our reachability predicate, allows succinct speciﬁcation of interesting properties of low-level software, and is conducive to modular program veriﬁcation. We have implemented a modular veriﬁer for annotated C programs called Havoc (Heap-Aware Veriﬁer Of C).
7]. The allocator maintains a list of free blocks within a single large object; each node in the list maintains a pointer to the next element of the list and the size of the free block in the node. Allocation of a block may result in either removing a node (if the entire free block at the node is returned) from the list, or readjusting the size of the free block (in case only a chunk of the free block is returned). We check two main postconditions: (i) the allocated block (when a non null pointer is returned) is a portion of some free block in the input list, and (ii) the free blocks of the output list do not overlap.