By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
8) F = sfqm, which is useful for comparing the performance of different scintillators 44 / 2. PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS using the same phototube and optical arrangement. 8 are best defined by considering the intermediate steps in the liquid-scintillation process. (i) In the first step, the energy of the charged particle is deposited in the solvent, and s, the relative scintillation efficiency, is a measure of the efficiency, relative, usually, to that of toluene, for the transfer of energy from the incident radiation io those excited levels of the solvent molecules from which energy can be transferred to the fluor in solution [see Table 5 and Birks (1975)l.
Any further increase in voltage will cause only a small increase in counting rate. An increase in the effective sensitive volume of the counter, or the onset of spurious pulses, can also cause the plateau to have a positive slope. The use of low gas gains, as permitted by lownoise amplifiers even for particle energies of a few keV, may be important in avoiding possible spurious pulses (Campion, 1973; Williams and Smith, 1973; BIPM, 1976), which are, however, usually negligible when the counter is operated near the middle of the plateau.
Good crystals eaey to obtain. 4 SCINTILLATION DETECTORS / 39 number of photoelectrons, P, produced by p photons generated in the scintillator may be expressed by the following relationship Typically EL may be as large as 95 percent while cc usually lies between 10 and 20 percent. In order to make cc as large as possible, the phototube is designed so that the spectral response of the photocathode material closely matches the photon spectrum emitted by the scintillator material being used. e. The quantity c,e~ec/hv provides a measure of the efficiency of a given scintillation detector.