By Ascheuer N., Junger M., Reinelt G.
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Extra info for A Branch & Cut Algorithm for the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraints
6 m subjected to the constraints of AASHTO (1983) and Ohio Department of Transportation bridge design regulations (ODOT, 1982). The cost function includes the material costs of concrete and steel. Lounis and Cohn (1993a) present the minimum cost design of short and medium span highway bridges consisting of RC slabs on precast, posttensioned, prestressed concrete I-girders satisfying the serviceability and ultimate limit state constraints of the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code (OHBDC, 1983). They use a three-level optimization approach.
Some researchers ignore the cost of the formwork. However, this cost is significant in industrialized countries and should not be ignored. Other costs such as the cost of labor, fabrication, placement, and transportation are often ignored. Additional research needs to be done on life-cycle cost optimization of structures where the life-cycle cost of the structure over its lifetime is minimized instead of its initial cost of construction only. The researchers of reliability-based optimization make a valid argument about the inclusion of uncertainties in loads and resistances in the optimization process.
6 m (25 ft). Jendo and Paczkowski (1993) describe the single- and multi-objective minimum cost design of one-story industrial buildings made of roof space double-layer trusses consisting of tubular sections subjected to explicit constraints on displacements, stresses, and buckling, using the metric and utility function methods (Jendo, 1990). Similar to Russell and Choudhary (1980), the problem is decomposed into several subproblems for optimization of roof covering (purlins and corrugated sheet), space trusses, columns, and walls (corrugated sheets).